“Political Entry, Public Policies, and the Economy” by Kevin K. TSUI
Kevin K. TSUI
Casey B. MULLIGAN
University of Chicago
This paper presents a theory of competition of political leadership between incumbent leaders and their challengers in which the possible equilibrium political market structures range from pure monopoly (unchallenged dictatorship) to perfectly competitive (ideal democracy). Leaders are constrained by the threat of "entry," or their ability to tax (or both), so that regimes with few (or no) challengers may nonetheless implement policies in the public interest. We offer economic interpretations of why democratic countries are associated with higher wages, why resource abundant countries tend to be nondemocratic, and how technological change affects political development. By focusing on the incentives for political entry, we show how trade sanctions and other policies designed to promote democracy may actually have the unintended consequences of discouraging political competition.